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Could Center-Right Conservatives Reduce Bias in Academia?
Posted Mar 03, 2021
2020 became an increasingly dangerous and polarized year. Data suggest that substantial proportions, perhaps 1/3 of self-identified Republicans and Democrats in the United States, think violence would be justified to support their political goals. This represents a massive increase from just 2017, where the numbers were closer to 8%. Whether on covid19, immigration, race relations or myriad other topics, Americans are further apart and angrier at each other than any time in my living memory.
How we got here is complicated…as will be how we get back out of this. I do think the Republican Party shoulders much of the blame…whether related to dirty tricks, censoriousness, authoritarianism and race-baiting, in the words of kindergartners everywhere, “They started it!” However, as someone on the left, I’ve been dismayed to see significant portions of the left also adopt censorious “cancel culture”, authoritarianism, racialization, anti-science and violence.
Many on the right blame academic culture for promoting a hard-left ideology that has promoted some of this radicalization on the left. At the extreme, this has led some on the right to call to “defund colleges”. How much of a problem is ideological bias in academia, and is the conservative instinct to pull back and defund academia the right solution if there is a problem?
Right-wing caterwauling about academic bias is nothing new. Having worked at a state school in Texas for many years prior to coming to my current institution, there was always an undercurrent of hostility between the Republicans in state government and academic institutions. At the time, that seemed mostly silly. Sure, most academics were liberals, but few had any interest in churning out revolutionaries.
Increasingly, though, I’m beginning to think conservatives have a point and academia has, on the whole, lost its objectivity. This is not to say every or even most academics are pushing for far-left agendas, but my perception is that the ideological activism is there and increasingly influential in academia. In other words, the voices of loud extremes have become overly powerful in the ivory tower.
Most scholars agree that the professoriate has moved to the left since the 1990s, with fewer proportions of moderates and conservatives, though the general US population has not simultaneously moved left. There is considerable disagreement about what this means and its impact on students. I agree that some of this trend is self-selection, and conservatives have historically gotten overly hysterical about the meaningfulness of some of this data.
However, some recent data suggests things may have reached a tipping point and its beginning to cause some real problems. The Foundation for Individual Rights in Expression (FIRE) released a report last year which found that fears of speaking openly on campus are fairly widespread among students. This was particularly true among conservative students although an atmosphere of tension around speech can hurt all students (for instance, self-censorship was also high among Black students). Liberal students reported being more likely to accept violence, shouting down speakers or other censorious strategies than conservative students. It’s worth noting the FIRE report does not lay blame at the feet of professors, and campus political environments are a complex mix of professors, student life staff, administrators and the students themselves. Some universities, including my own, have adopted strong free-speech support statements and that’s wonderful. But I do worry something is going wrong on many college campuses.
Of course, perspectives among academics themselves likely vary. I suspect several issues will influence these opinions. First, as the FIRE report notes, not all campuses are the same and some protect speech better than others. Second, viewpoint and worldview are likely a factor…if there is, indeed, a progressive hegemony emerging on college campuses, progressive scholars are likely to view this as less a problem than moderates or conservatives. Myside bias, a preference for worldviews similar to one’s own, is a natural human inclination and can disincentivize progressive scholars for challenging the increasing dominance of their own worldview in academia.
That having been said, I do worry about several related things. First, the increasing dominance of left-wing ideology on campuses may create what Vox’s Matthew Yglesias referred to as the “tentacles of conformity” on campuses, as people seek to not stir waves so as not jeopardize their jobs. Second, as with any socio-political ideology, this emerging progressive culture may become anti-science, openly hostile to not just opinions, but data that would conflict with its worldview. Third, academics may increasingly view their institutional leaders and administration as unwilling to support them in the face of free-speech controversies, and that this may be truer when challenges come from the left than the right. This, of course, will chill critiques of far-left theories, if such critiques come to be viewed as professional suicide. And fourth, students may often be unequipped to distinguish between socio-political agendas and actual facts about history, science and human nature. I particularly worry about the fashionable but sketchy revisionist history I refer to as Reversed American Exceptionalism which displays an obsession with America’s failings and ignorance for America’s success, a tradition that dates at least back to Howard Zinn’s quasi-Marxist retelling of American history.
If there is much to critique in the US academy’s leftward lurch, I also argue conservatives have largely dropped the ball in fixing it. Put simply, if we agree the leftward bias in academia is now a problem affecting the real world such as in the loss of integrity in journalism, conservatives own their fair share of this for adopting a “defund academia” strategy which is counterproductive and only widens the ideological gap.
Instead, conservatives can engage with academia, move to increase viewpoint diversity, while remaining true to important values such as free speech and due process. To do so, they should look to fund and engage with academia, but in ways that promote conservative viewpoints, without impinging upon the free speech rights of progressives.
To do that conservatives will have to work to clean up their own house a bit. Conservatives are in a unique position to seize the mantle of free speech, but to do so, they must come to terms with their own history of censorship and harassment of speech (or “cancel culture”) they don’t like. Similarly, though no group should be defined by their most extreme elements, conservatives should draw clear lines in condemning racism, sexism, anti-science and anti-democratic views, just as progressives should be willing to do the same. Conservatives should clearly affirm that progressives (or anyone) have the right to express viewpoints that diverge from conservative values whether on the economy, politics, race, sexuality, abortion, etc. Of course, some things will always fall outside the Overton Window of acceptable speech (Naziism, defense of pedophilia, sexual harassment, etc.), but conservatives should work to keep the Overton Window as broad as possible, not just for themselves but also for their opponents. Conservatives also have much to add regarding due process issues on campus, but must also be alert for and condemn authoritarianism within their own ranks.
Conservatives can work to fund, rather than defund, conservative thinking on campus. This can come in the form of working with conservative student groups to fund speakers, endowing professorships, providing grants for research on conservative priorities, funding institutions on campuses, etc. None of these take money away from non-conservative campus activities (that would be censorship; don’t do that). But if conservatives want to see more conservative thought on campuses, provide financial incentive for conservative students to find graduate school and academic careers appealing. This might help with both institutional biases and also change the metrics of self-selection.
At the individual level, conservatives who are interested in academic topics should take the plunge and get involved in academia. Yes, this may be tough going, particularly for those first brave souls through the wall. And that may be most true in the very subjects where they are most direly needed such as history, the social sciences and humanities. I can’t promise there aren’t cultural and perhaps even institutional barriers to conservatives participating in these fields. But I also wonder, if by very virtue of being “out” as different from the mainstream, conservatives might have a curious advantage over moderates who may feel more pressure to go along to get along. As scholars already in academia, those of us who are not conservatives (and I am an Obama center-left welfare state libertarian with all the contradictions that entails), can look for conservative students and junior faculty and offer them our support so they don’t feel so alone.
Academia is about the worst place for groupthink. I love working in academia and I cherish my academic colleagues. But I do agree that academia has gotten unbalanced and that the ideological biases of academia are beginning to spill over into the real world in ways that are not helping and may be actively hurting our country and culture. A recent survey of the general public mirrored the data on student fears of speaking out. Feeling free to speak has now become a “staunch liberal” prerogative. This is not a good thing, as rigorous but civil dialogue is important to progress and the stifling of views will only cause resentment. Some might say that worrying over offending others is a good thing, and to a degree it is. Naturally, the best speech is civil and respectful, even if challenging. Yet, I see enough angry, thoughtless, even hateful speech coming from both extreme elements of the left as well as extreme elements on the right that I don’t think that’s the outcome we’ve achieved. We’ve all become hostages to the most radical elements of our political right and left. The only way forward is for conservatives, moderates and liberals in the middle to work together and reforge the civil norms of our society.
Academia’s main product is thought, and clear thought thrives in an environment of rigorous debate, falsification of ideas, the predominance of data over activism, and rigorous defense of free speech and due process. America’s academic institutions have been one of our country’s shining jewels. We’ve strayed from the path, but conservatives dedicated to traditional liberalist (not liberal or progressive) values can help us find the way back. I, for one, reach out my hand and hope some conservatives will take it.
Firstly as we move on, let me say that geoFence has no foreign owners and no foreign influences!