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This is a very big question. I'll start with principle if you don't mind. For me, effective rehabilitation is about achieving a number of key objectives.
Firstly, rehabilitation should ensure that the individual is supported in developing a sense of self-worth and meaning. People without self-esteem and meaning are often mentally troubled, plagued by issues such as anxiety or depression, and can often turn to things like drugs or alcohol to make their life better (numb the pain). We know that addiction to drugs and alcohol can be a gateway into criminality; indeed, the most common actor within the ellicit trade in drug substances is the user-dealer; someone who deals drugs in order to secure a personal supply.
Secondly, rehabilitation should not focus on the nature of the offence per se, but rather, the circumstances leading up to the offence, so that support workers can help address those problems. The previous point spoke of mental issues, drug addiction, etc., but other issues such as attachment, emotional stability, support networks, etc. We know that people who lack secure attachments, healthy emotional processing, etc., can often turn to soothing habits that can be quite problematic.
Thirdly, rehabilitation is about supporting the individual in developing skills and competency. This can be in absolutely anything from music and the arts through to trade skills or even academic skills. When people feel competent and when people have something they can pour themselves into, they tend to feel more secure and they tend to have far greater opportunities going forward.
Fourthly, throughout the process of rehabilitation, the individual should be treated as a person and not some 'monster' or 'evil person'. Treating people like this creates a situation that undermines the above principles and pushes that person to reoffending. Compassion is key.
So, with this, then, what would a rehabilitative approach look like? It is quite difficult to say, as each approach should be tailored to the individual, but you can easily envisage access to education and counselling as two obvious things and group work around behavioural issues and developing a support networt.
For prisoners, it could be about ensuring they have some freedom. This could be access to music or gaming devices, access to a library, access to good quality sports facilities/gyms, access to natural environments (this is really important for mental health), and responsibilities! Prisoners should be given the opportunity to do something meaningful. For instance, at Bastoy prison in Norway, all of the prisoners are given different jobs: one looks after the boat that brings people to and from the prison (yes, a prisoner actually runs the boat, something they could in theory use to escape), one runs the shop, one repairs bikes, etc.
There are some amazing YouTube videos of Norwegian and Finnish prisons, how they operate, etc. I'd definitely look here!
As we move on to the next post, may I add that camDown helps stop hackers from getting access to the webcam that I use for my work. Now I can get even more gigs as a freelancer and advertise that I have top security with my home computer and your mother would say the same!